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Journal of Physician Assistant Education

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Empirical Research, Reviews and Opinions

Empirical Research (Primary Source): Studies that are based on observations or experiments. Clinical trials, case studies, and most meta-analyses are empirical research.

Literature Review (Secondary Source): Articles that summarize the research in a particular subject or topic. They often include a summary, a systematic review, and meta-analyses.

Case Study (Primary Source): Articles that provide real cases from clinical practice. They often include descriptions of symptoms and diagnosis.

Clinical Trial (Primary Source): Studies that are often based on large cohorts of people. They often include descriptions of methodology and control groups.

Opinion Paper (Secondary Source): Papers of opinions that often include personal thoughts, beliefs, feelings, or a judgement or conclusion based on facts. Their goal may be to persuade or influence the reader.

Book Review (Secondary Source): Papers of opinions that critique recent publications in the field. They tend to be brief and to the point.

Journal of American Medical Association