Syria from Reform to Revolt by Raymond HinnebuschWhen Bashar al-Asad smoothly assumed power in July 2000, just seven days after the death of his father, observers were divided on what this would mean for the country's foreign and domestic politics. On the one hand, it seemed everything would stay the same: an Asad on top of a political system controlled by secret services and Baathist one-party rule. On the other hand, it looked like everything would be different: a young president with exposure to Western education who, in his inaugural speech, emphasized his determination to modernize Syria. This volume explores the ways in which Asad's domestic and foreign policy strategies during his first decade in power safeguarded his rule and adapted Syria to the age of globalization. The volume's contributors examine multiple aspects of Asad's rule in the 2000s, from power consolidation within the party and control of the opposition to economic reform, co-opting new private charities, and coping with Iraqi refugees. The Syrian regime temporarily succeeded in reproducing its power and legitimacy, in reconstructing its social base, and in managing regional and international challenges. At the same time, contributors clearly detail the shortcomings, inconsistencies, and risks these policies entailed, illustrating why Syria's tenuous stability came to an abrupt end during the Arab Spring of 2011. This volume presents the work of an international group of scholars from a variety of disciplinary backgrounds. Based on extensive fieldwork and on intimate knowledge of a country whose dynamics often seem complicated and obscure to outside observers, these scholars' insightful snapshots of Bashar al-Asad's decade of authoritarian upgrading provide an indispensable resource for understanding the current crisis and its disastrous consequences.
Publication Date: 2015
Syria by John D. GraingerSyria (which in its historical wider sense includes modern Syria, Lebanon, Israel/Palestine and Jordan) has always been at the centre of events of world importance. It was in this region that pastoral-stock rearing, settled agriculture and alphabetic writing were invented (and the dog domesticated). From Syria, Phoenician explorers set out to explore the whole Mediterranean region and sailed round Africa 2,000 years before Vasco de Gama. These are achievements enough but the succeeding centuries offer a rich tapestry of turbulent change, a cycle of repeated conquest, unification, rebellion and division. John D Grainger gives a sweeping overview (though replete with telling details) of the making of this historical region. From the end of the ice age through the procession of Assyrian, Phoenician, Persian, Greek, Roman, Arab, Turkish, French and British attempts to dominate this area, the key events and influences are clearly explained and analysed. The events playing out on our TV screens over recent years are put in the context of 12,000 years of history. AUTHOR: John D Grainger is a former teacher and historian of great experience, with a particular interest in the Classical and Hellenistic Greek periods. His many previous works include five for Pen & Sword: Hellenistic and Roman Naval Wars (2011), The Wars of the Maccabees (2012), Traditional Enemies (2012); Roman Conquests: Egpyt and Judaea (2013) and The Rise of the Seleukid Empire (2014). SELLING POINTS: * Overview of Syrian history from the Last Ice Age to the 20th century * Situated on the routes between the Mediterranean world, Europe, Middle East and Africa, Syria has always been at the centre of major world events, and remains so. * A turbulent history, Syria has been repeatedly conquered, divided and reunited * Encompasses historical Syrian region - not just the modern state - so it includes, Israel/Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon * Pastoral stock-raising, settled agriculture, domestication of the dog, alphabetical writing, monotheistic religion were all invented in Syria * Syrian (Phoenician) explorers sailed round Africa 2000 years before Vasco de Gama
New name for Lexis Nexis Academic. Newspaper articles and case law from the Supreme Court, federal and state, statutes and regulations, Shepard’s Citations, legal news and law reviews, international legal materials, and patents.